BUDGETING: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO PROFIT PLANNING AND CONTROL

(A CASE STUDY OF MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK NIGERIA LIMITED’ (MTN), ENUGU STATE)

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PROPOSAL

          Budgeting – A systematic approach to profit planning and control is a work that will be centered on the use of budgeting a tool for planning and control in order to maximize profit using mobile Telecommunication Network Nigeria Limited (MTN) Enugu, as a case study.

This research will be carried out through series of oral interviews and distribution of questionnaires in the collection of data and relevant information to the employees of mobile telecommunication Network Nigeria Limited Enugu.  The data that will be collected, will be analyzed as well as interpreted by the research from the testing and proofing of hypothesis.  The researcher will also source information from secondary data which includes text books, magazines, journals etc.

The researcher will be faced with the following constraints:

–                     Insufficient money to distribute as much questionnaires as possible.

–                     Poor response from the employees because they will be afraid of losing their job

–                     Insufficient time

In order for the company to achieve their objectives, the researcher will recommend that there should be budgetary control so that workers will be aware of the objective of the organization and subordinates opinion considered in the preparation of the departmental or company’s budget estimate.  This will help in encouraging goal congruence.

 

ABSTRACT

 

          Budgeting – A systematic approach to profit planning and control is a work centered on the use of budgeting as a tool for planning and control for profit maximization in a mobile telecommunication network Nigeria Limited Enugu as a case study.

The objective of the study is to show the importance of budgeting as a tool for systematic profit planning and control in the mobile telecommunication network Nigeria limited which has profit maximization as its principal objective.

The research is also aimed at identifying the steps adopted in the formulation of annual budget of MTN Nigeria.

Consequent upon this, the following hypothetical question were used for the study.

  1. Managers use budgeting as a systematic approach to profit planning and control in attaining the goals of the business.
  2. Decision making is performed in mobile telecommunication using budgeting
  3. Utilization of resources is achieved with the use of budget and budgetary control

Following the investigation and analysis of data, the following findings were made

  1. The organization uses budgeting in achieving the goals and objectives
  2. The main objective of the organization is profit maximization
  3. Efficiency and effectiveness of the organization is achieved through the use of budgeting.

From the findings, the conclusions were arrived that budgeting is very essential and indispensable tool for profit planning and control.  It helps management to be well structured in sustaining the growth and expansion of the organization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                                i

Approval                                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                  v

Table of content                                                                      vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     Historical Development of the Firm                              4

1.2     Background of mobile Telecommunication                    5

Network Nigeria Limited/Present state of Affairs

1.3     Statement of problem                                                    8

1.4     Objective of the study                                                    8

1.5     Research Question                                                                   9

1.6     Research Hypothesis                                                     10

1.7     Scope and limitation                                                      10

1.8     Significance of the study                                                         11

1.9     Definition of terms                                                                  12

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                                            14

2.1     Introduction                                                                            14

2.2     Definition of budget                                                       15

2.3     Types of Budget                                                            17

2.4     The Budget period                                                                   20

2.5     Administration of the Annual Budget                                     21

2.6     Stages in the Budget process                                         24

2.7     Appraisal of fixed, flexible and other budget                          43

2.8     Planning function                                                           45

2.9     Controlling function                                                      46

2.10   Budgeting control                                                          50

2.11   Variance analysis                                                           51

2.12       Additional Tool for Budgeting and Budgetary

control: Zero Base Budgeting (ZBB)                                       57

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Design and methodology                                58

3.1     Research design                                                             58

3.2     sampling technique                                                        58

3.3     Sampling design and population size                                      58

3.4     Sources of data                                                              60

3.5     Interview questions                                                        60

3.6     Method of data analysis                                                60

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data                  63

4.1     Analysis of questionnaires returned                              63

4.2     Hypothesis testing and proofing                                             71

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary of findings recommendations and conclusion         77

5.1            Summary of findings                                                     77

5.2            Recommendations                                                                   79

5.3            Conclusion                                                                     80

Bibliography                                                                  81

Appendix                                                                       83

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0            INTRODUCTION

The growing complexity of the business environment and the ever increasing competition among firms in the modern time, make planning an invaluable tool for business success.  Successful management is no longer just a matter of flair, skill and determination, a conscious effort is needed to harness available resources towards the achievement of enterprise objectives.  Budgeting is one of the tools adopted by management for effective cost planning and control.

A budget is commonly understood  the forecast by a government, organization nor society of its expenditures and revenues for a specific period of time.  The  period covered  by a budget is usually a year known as financial year.  Budgeting is concerned with the utilization of financial resources to serve human needs.  Although a budget may be characterized by a series of goals with price tags attached.  It is mainly a mechanism for making choices among alternative expenditure.  When such are coordinated so as to achieve desired goals, the budget becomes a plan.  If there are specifications on how the goals are to be achieved, the budget becomes a psychological device to make administrators thin.  If however, the emphasis is placed on achieving the desired objective at the lowest possible cost, then the budget is an instrument for ensuring efficiency.

An enterprise which is effectively and efficiently managed produces good and rewarding result.  Management is efficient if it is able to accomplish the objectives with minimum efforts and costs.

Profit planning and control or budgeting is an integral part of management.  The financial manager has a particular interest in profits planning and control because he helps to regulate flows of funds which is his function.  The decision making process of management starts with planning.  ‘Planning is the design of a desired future and of effective ways of bringing it about.  In other words, planning involves the determination of the future course of action for accomplishing the objectives of the enterprise.  The basic purpose of planning is to provide guidelines for making decisions. It is a forward process to reducing uncertainty about the future.

Planning is a continuous process which would generally involve four fundamental steps.

  1. Establishing the objectives
  2. Determining the goals
  3. Developing strategies
  4. Formulating profits plans or budget.

Objectives are the statements of broad and long term desired state or position of the enterprise in the future. They are directional and motivational in nature and are generally the qualitative expressions of the desired future state.  For instance, the primary objective of an enterprise may be customers satisfaction, employee welfare, long-run- survival which depends upon the maximization of the long-run profit, that is wealth maximization.

Goals represent the operational specifications of the broad objective with time and quantity dimensions.  Goals are the quantified targets to be attained within a specific period e.g. long run profit maximization in order to increase the market value of the firm to shareholders is the broad objective of the firm.  But the goal for the next year may be to earn a 20% after tax profit on investment or a 5% profit on sales.

Strategies specify the ways of achieving the goal operationally.  For example, the strategies of a firm may include the use of retained earnings for expansion, keeping debt at a reasonable level, expanding sales through price reduction and aggressive advertisement.  Financial plans may take many forms, but any good plan must be related to the firm’s existing strength and weakness.  The strengths must understood, if they are to be used for proper advantage and the weakness must be recognized if corrective action is to be taken.

Finally, the formalization of objectives, goals and strategies for operational purposes is called the profit planning or budgeting.  It is called the profit plan or budget because it explicitly state the goals in terms of time expectations and expected financial results for each major segment of the entity.

 

1.1     HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIRM

It is important at this point to review briefly the history of the company mobile telecommunication Network Nigeria Limited (MTN).  It was incorporated in Nigeria on November 8. 2000 as a private company.  It secured a license to operate digital (Global system for mobile telecommunications GSM) telephony on February 9 2001, from the Nigerian communications commission.  On May, 2001, MTN emerged as the first to make a call on its GSM network in the new dispensation. Thereafter, the company launched full commercial operations beginning with Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt in the company now provides coverage to 85 cities and well over 5,000 communities and villages, spanning every geo-political zone and 31 of Nigeria’s 36 states.

It is the first to erect a country wide microwave radio transmission backbone, offering unrivalled value for money evidenced by a loyal customer base attracted by MTN’s convenience, mobility, roaming on 30 international networks and economical Tarrifs.  MTN’s product and services are available at its friendship centres and a nationwide network of dealership, banks and convenience channels including entries, petrol stations and neighourhood stores.

 

1.2            BACKGROUND OF MOBILE ELECOMMUNICATION NETWORK NIGERIA LIMITED/PRESENT STATE OF AFFAIRS

The company through systematic planning and control represents several millions of Nara in investment.  The company as at May 31, 2004, had a total of 21 mobile switching centres and over 940 radio base stations across the country. Several more are in the process of being installed.  On January 20, 2003, MTN commissioned the first phase of its digital microwave transmission backbone, Y’ello Balm.  Constructed  at a cost of $120 million.  Y’elloBalm is Africa’s most extensive transmission infrastructure and has significantly helped to enhance call quality on MTN’s network.  Y’ello Balm spans 3,400 kilometers and traverses over 120 cities, villages and communities; while coverage has been extent to more than 90 major towns and a total of over 5,000 villages and communities across Nigeria.  The second phase of Ye’llo Balm is currently on going and will spand another 4,500 kilometers.

MTN subsists on the core brand values of leadership, integrity, innovation, relationships and a ‘can do’ attitude, a passionate optimistic focus on the future.  It prides itself on its ability to make the impossible possible – connecting people with friends, family and opportunities.  The ownership structure is currently as follows:  Mobile telephone Networks International Limited 76.44%

Nigerian partners                    20.56%

International finance corporation and infrastructure investment arm of the world bank                           3%

100%

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE/COMEMRCIAL SERVICE AGREEMENT

          The company is technically supported by Nami Tech in south Africa who doe the prepaid voucher and supplier to MTN.

COMPAY’S CONTRIBUTION TO NIGERIA ECONOMY

          MTN currently employs more than 1,200 Nigerians.  In addition, more than 160 Nigerian companies are currently MTN distribution partners.  Of these, more htan 25 are banks, many of which have spun off subsidiary companies, many of the dealerships have branches nationwide and employ dozens of people.  Another 6,000 companies, including petrol statiosn, supermarkets and many others, serves as sub-dealerships.

Yet a great may other Nigerians earn a living as self-employed proprietors, recahrge card or mobile phone accessory vendors, many others operate the hundred of business centres scattred allover our cities.

VISION

–                     To improve telecommunications infrastructures and access throughout the countries in which we operate

–                     Quality service

–                     High profile distribution and accessibility of our services and products

–                     Setting up a good base for future expansion.

–                     Training and transferring skills to local staff.

–                     Becoming a good corporate citizen and becoming a major player in the Nigerian economy.

MISSION

–                     TO BE A CATALYST FOR Nigeira’s economic growth and development, helping to unleash Nigeira’s strong developmental potential not only through the provisionof world class communiations but also through innovative and impactful corporate social responsibility initiaties.

–                     We want the cals you make on our network to   be of the best quanlity in Nigeira

–                     We want our network to cover the broadest areas of Nigeira and athe continuous enhancing of convenience and value derived from using our network.

–                     Every call made shoukd  re-inforce your conviction that MTN is needed.

1.3            STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

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